Gemstones A-Z

A Rainbow Of Gems

There are over two hundred Gemstones. Here are list of a few commonly used Gemstones, little history and facts about the Gemstones. As some collectors who are only interested in the monetary, rarity value of Gemstones. All our Gemstones are cut and polished by us.


Amethyst has always been in demand since the ancient times until now. The colour of Amethyst has always been considered as a royal colour, as we have seen them worn in many Royal families. It was a favorite of Catherine the great.

Leonardo Da Vinci is said to believe that the amethyst stone was able to dissipate evil thoughts and quicken the intelligence.

The Amethyst takes us way back in history; it was considered to encourage celibacy as it was a very important ornament for the catholic and other churches. It was known to be a stone of bishops and they still often wear the stone.

The word Amethyst has been derived from the Greek word ‘amethystos’ which means ‘not drunken’. The stone symbolizes sobriety.

The legend of the origin of amethyst comes from Greek myths. Dionysius, the god of intoxication, was angered one day by an insult from a mere mortal and swore revenge on the next mortal that crossed his path, creating fierce tigers to carry out his wish. Along came unsuspecting Amethyst, a beautiful young maiden on her way to pay tribute to the goddess Diana. Diana turned Amethyst into a stature of pure crystalline quartz to protect her from the brutal claws. Dionysus wept tears of wine in remorse for his action at the sight of the beautiful statue. The god’s tears stained the quartz purple, creating the gem we know today.

Blue Sapphire

In the ancient there was a belief that the sky is a gigantic Blue Sapphire stone into which the earth is embedded. What better way to describe the beauty of the Blue Sapphire? Blue is considered to be the main colour of Sapphire. The blue Sapphire portrays all the shades of blue from dark to light.

It is the favorite colour of about 50% of the population, both men and women. The blue colour is usually linked with emotions such

as loyal, sympathy, harmony, and friendship. These emotions are usually experienced with out close and loved ones which are everlasting and trustworthy and this one of the reason why most women would like to have a sapphire on their engagement ring. Sapphire symbolizes loyalty and faithfulness, while at the same time expressing love and desire.

The Sapphire’s beauty is its brilliant color, thee transparency and the hardness. Because of its hardness which is grade 9 on the Mohs’ Scale, it’s a very manageable gemstone to care for. The harness is second to diamond, diamond being the hardest mineral on earth!
Of course our Sapphires come from Kenya and Tanzania.. The darkest shade of blue is mainly cherished for, The ‘Kashmir – colour’ with its velvety sheen is the most incredible and valuable shade.

Sapphires don’t only come in blue; they also come in yellow, purple, pink, green and also white sapphires which are termed as fancy sapphires which are just as beautiful and rare and are very affordable. Our fancy Sapphires come from the Umba Valley in Tanzania. No matter what the colour, sapphires are a combination of durability and beauty for generations to come.


Citrine named from the French name for lemon, “citron,” as many citrines have a juicy lemon color.Citrine comes in the colours of yellow to gold to orange brown shades of transparent quartz.In the ancient times, citrine was known to be a stone which would act as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts.

Citrine is one of the most affordable and beautiful colour stone. When set in yellow gold,

the stone brings out the best fire in it.Although the darker, orange colors of citrine, sometimes called Madeira citrine after the color of the wine, has generally been the most valued color, in modern times, many people prefer the bright lemony shades which mix better with pastel colors. Citrine is generally more inexpensive than amethyst and is also available in a wide range of calibrated sizes and shapes, including very large sizes


These fascinating Green stones have the most intense and radiant color. Inclusions in these stones are often accepted because it’s very

difficult and pricey to find a fine emerald. Some of the fine emeralds are even more valuable than diamonds.

The name emerald is derived from the Greek ‘smaragdos’ via the Old French ‘esmeralde,’ and really just means ‘green gemstone’.

It is said that Emeralds were first exploited by the Egyptians pharaohs between 3000 and 1500 B.C. (They were later referred to as the ‘Cleopatra’s Mines’ in the 19th Century when they were rediscovered.) They were found near the Red Sea in Egypt. The emerald green is known to be the colour of beauty and love. In ancient Rome, this was the colour of the goddess of beauty and love, Venus. Until today the colour still holds a prominent place in many cultures and religion; in the Catholic Church, green is regarded as the most natural and elemental of the liturgical colours, it is also a holy colour of Islam symbolizing of the unity and faith.

Good quality Emerald is very rare; with inclusions often blemish the evenness of the colour. However, fine inclusions do not by any means reduce the high regard in which it is held. Emeralds are cut in various shapes but to bring out the fire from the gemstone there’s a special cut; the emerald cut. The rectangle or square cut brings out the beauty of the stone to the fullest.

Off course Colombia still continues to be on the top of the list where the emeralds are found. Our emeralds are mostly from Zimbabwe and Zambia. Zambia is said to be producing the best deep emerald colour with a good transparency, it is slightly darker than most emeralds and often has slight bluish undertone. Emeralds which are very fine but are mostly come in small sizes but with a vivacious, intense green come from the Sandawana Mines in Zimbabwe. It is said that the oldest Emeralds come from Zimbabwe, growing over 2600 million years ago.

Called the “Stone of Successful Love,” Emerald opens and nurtures the heart and the Heart Chakra. Its soothing energy provides healing to all levels of the being, bringing freshness and vitality to the spirit. A stone of inspiration and infinite patience, it embodies unity, compassion and unconditional love. Emerald promotes friendship, balance between partners, and is particularly known for providing domestic bliss, contentment and loyalty. It was dedicated in the ancient world to the goddess Venus for its ability to insure security in love.

Red Garnet

Garnets are the most wonderful deep red gemstones which are often found in antique jewellery. But actually Garnets show a variety of bright and beautiful colours. Although the colour red is one of the most popular, there are also Garnets in al shades of yellow, orange, green. New find also come in blue, purple and the magnificient colour changing garnet.

Garnets gemstones have always been in demand and often set in jewellery since the Greek, Egypt and Romans eras. It was very popularly worn as talismans and protective stones by many travelers as it were believed that it protected the wearer against any evil.

Garnet holds an excellent hardness of 7 to 7.5 on the Mohs’ scale which makes them very manageable and easy to wear daily. Garnets are one gemstone that look amazing in any light, be it artificial or natural cause of their high refraction of light. Garnets comes from the Latin word ‘Granum’ which means ‘grain’. This is because garnets are very popular in rounded shapes reminding one of pomegranate. In the olden days Garnet were referred to in German as ‘karfunkel’ referring to the glowing red in the sparks of fire.


The Viking mariners used thin pieces of iolite lens in the first polarizing filter, looking through the iolite lens they could know the exact position of the sun and navigate their way safely. The iolite was used because of the stone’s extreme pleochroism. An iolite crystal has different colours in different directions.

The name iolite name comes from the Greek word ‘ios’, meanin

g violet. The iolite colour is usually a purplish blue showed in a fine cut iolite, with softness to the color that can be quite attractive.

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli is one of the most sought after stones in use since man’s history began. Its deep, celestial blue remains the symbol of royalty and honour, gods and power, spirit and vision. It is a universal symbol of wisdom and truth.

In ancient times Lapis Lazuli was most highly regarded because of its beautiful colour and the valuable ultramarine dye derived from it. Its name comes from the Latin lapis, “stone,” and the Persian lazhuward, “blue.” It is rock formed by multiple minerals, mostly Lazurite, Sodalite, Calcite and Pyrite, and is a rich medium to royal blue with gold flecks (pyrites). Lower-grade Lapis is lighter blue with more white than gold flecks, and is sometimes called denim Lapis.

Lapis Lazuli was among the most highly prized tribute paid to Egypt, obtained from the oldest mines in the world, worked from around 4000 B.C. and still in use today. Referenced in the Old Testament as sapphire (unknown in that part of the ancient world), Lapis Lazuli is most likely the fifth stone in the original breastplate of the High Priest, as well as those of later times.

The golden sarcophagus of King Tutankhamen was richly inlaid with Lapis, as were other burial ornaments of Egyptian kings and queens. It was used extensively in scarabs, pendants and other jewellery, and ground into powder for dyes, eye shadow and medicinal elixirs. In the dry, barren land of the Egyptians, this deep cobalt blue colour was a spiritual contrast to their arid desert hues. The gold flecks were like stars in their night-time sky and by meditating on these colours they felt supernatural forces would transform their lives. The garments of priests and royalty were dyed with Lapis to indicate their status as gods themselves.

In ancient Persia and pre-Columbian America, Lapis Lazuli was a symbol of the starry night, and a favourite stone of the Islamic Orient for protection from the evil eye. Lapis was much used in Greek and Roman times as an ornamental stone, and in medieval Europe, Lapis Lazuli, resembling the blue of the heavens, was believed to counteract the wiles of the spirits of darkness and procure the aid and favour of the spirits of light and wisdom. Ground and processed into powder, it produced the intense, but expensive, ultramarine colour favoured by the painter, Michelangelo.
Buddhists recommended Lapis as a stone to bring inner peace and freedom from negative thought.


Besides Emerald and Aquamarine, Morganite is probably the best-known member from the fabulous multi-coloured Beryl-group. Women all over the world love it because of its very fine pink colour which emanates charm, esprit and tenderness.

Morganite comes in many fine shades of pink. Some are clearly pink, others tend more towards purple. Even a slight orange hue may be sometimes discerned – after all, Mother Nature created the ideal gemstone colour to complement any shade of complexion.

But no matter which shade and hue, Morganite always radiates charm, esprit and a certain tenderness. This gemstone is endowed with a wonderful gift: even in times of high stress it will manage to let you focus on the bright side of life. Just give it a try and see for yourself. The sight of a Morganite cannot fail to cheer you up. A person who decides for this stone, will be able to see “la vie en rose” even in the grey monotony of everyday routines. Therefore, then, it is easy to understand that for the stone healers, Morganite is considered the typical stone to be used as the antidote to cure the problems caused by hectic modern life: to relieve stress and provide clarity. It will provide a pleasant feeling of relaxation, peace and joy of life.


Peridot is one of the earliest and yet a very fashionable gemstone. The stones are found in Egyptian jewellery from the early second millennium B.C.

The Romans were also quite fond of this gemstone and coveted the gleaming green sparkle, which does not change in artificial light either and so they named the stone “Evening Emerald”. The name Peridot is resulting from the Greek “Peridona”, meaning something like “giving plenty”. Peridot only exists in one colour. The colour comes in variation from yellow – green and olive to brownish green.

This gemstone is actually known under three names: Peridot, Chrysolith (derived from the Greek word “goldstone”) and Olivin, because Peridot is the gemstone variety of the Olivin mineral. The colour comes in a variation from yellow-green and olive to brownish green.

Red Coral

Red Coral has been called the ‘garden of the sea’. It was once believed to be a plant, but is now known to actually contain living animals called polyps. Coral is the result of accumulated skeletal masses from these polyps. Red is considered the most sought after color but coral also can be found in pink, white, yellow and black.

Records dating back thousands of years confirm that coral was used in decorative art objects. It was believed to prevent ill fortune and offer protection from skin disease when worn as a necklace. Dreams about coral are believed to foretell recovery from a long illness. Ancients believed that Mars was composed of red coral.


The colour of love, passion, power…. ‘Red like Ruby Ruby-Red’. This wonderful gemstone has all it takes to be ‘precious’; it has an amazing colour, exceptional hardness and crushing brilliance.

Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum, the term “corundum” is derived from the Sanskrit word “kuruvinda”. These gemstones show an excellent hardness. On the Moh’s Scale they achieve a hardness of 9, second only to diamonds! Only the red corundum is called Ruby, the other colours are known as Sapphires.

Fine Rubies are quite hard to find in big sizes, above 3 carats. Thus Rubies with little bit inclusions but a very good colour and size are considered to be quite valuable some can also be more worth than diamonds.

The most important quality about this precious stone is its colour. The name “Ruby” comes from the Latin word “rubens” meaning “red”. The red colour represents hot, passionate signifying adoring and rampant love between two people. Ruby is the perfect symbol of strong powerful feelings for one another.

Rutilated Quartz

The energy of this crystal combo is not by any means subtle.

It has been known to almost “zap” its holder, energetically, much like feeling electricity. It channels energy very well making this stone a great amplifier as well as a great stone for energizing. The Rutile within the Quartz can be a few different colors with red and gold being the most common. The gold Rutile has been called the hair of Venus (Venus is, loosely known as, the goddess of love).

The beautiful, straw gold, glistening strands of Rutile have also been called Angel hair. When holding a Rutilated Quartz peace comes over the bearer and sometimes a sense of power is charged within the solar plexus. This is done to such a degree that the one holding the stone may feel as if they could indeed rule the world, in a very loving way of course! This perhaps may be the reason it is called Angel hair as it assists the bearer in feeling as if there is nothing that is impossible and they are guided and guarded unconditionally.

The Rutilated Quartz has been known to repel negative energy working much like a shield. If negative energy finds its way past the shielding then it is caught much like bad dreams caught in a dreamcatcher. It is then dissipated or sealed up until the crystal can be cleansed. In physical healing this crystal, at one point in history, was ground up and used as a type of poultice for wounds. It also historically has been known to help one understand the reasons behind the acquisition of dis-eases; therefore, giving one access to information that can be used to help one find healing. Some say that the Rutilated Quartz aids the understanding of advanced civilizations that give us insight into the cooperation among peoples of the world today.

This crystal is very important for balance and emotional calming especially when stressed by groups of people as the bearer will feel more “in tune” with those around them.


Tanzanite is a velvety blue variety of the mineral Zoisite which was discovered in 1967, located the first gem quality Zoisite deposits in the Merelani hills of Tanzania. One day a Masai-herdsmen was passing by where he noticed some crystals sparkling under the sun. Some of the material was violet and was thought to be sapphire. Indeed, its rich purples and blues often have a depth comparable to the finest sapphire.

Tanzanite has a beautiful, magnificent deep blue colour, ranging from ultramarine to a purplish blue It has a hardness only of 6.5 to 7 on the Moh’s scale; not very resistant. The name Tanzanite comes from the place of occurrence of the place Tanzania. It unique violet-blue hue, supreme rarity and incredible beauty make it a gemstone of world repute with the demand far outstripping supply.

Tanzanite is always so fascinating to ones eye because of its unique appeal. Tanzanite always portrays as immaculate but unusual elegance. This magical colour not only attractive on young women, it also emphasises the individualism of a mature woman. After all, the desire to own something unique and rare has always been favoured by one. This magnificent stone is only found in one place in the world on the misty slopes of the legendary Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Watermelon Tourmaline

Tourmalines are one of kind precious stones that display a unique brilliance of colours. As the fable goes, these magnificent colours are result for the reason that the long way from the Earth towards sun, tourmaline traveled along a rainbow and so it collected the colours of the rainbow as sometimes its called the ‘Rainbow gemstone’.

The name Tourmaline comes from the Singhalese word ‘tura mali’ meaning ‘a stone of mixed colours’. Tourmalines come in green, red, and yellow to blue.

They usually portray two or more colours; multi-coloured appearance in the gemstone. This gemstone shows many faces and so it is suitable for all kind of moods; No tourmaline exactly bear a resemblance to another!

Tsavorite – Green Garnet

Tsavorite has been widely acclaimed by gemologists as the green gem of the future. It is the gemstone Emerald should have been.

It occurs in shades ranging from a delightful, bright apple green through to a rich emerald green – rivaling the emerald in all aspects. It is brighter, harder and cleaner than most emeralds and is completely untreated and not enhanced “…The intensity of colour in Tsavorite crystals in unique. Gemologists have never seen a green like it – even in emeralds. The colour is purer in every way”

It is only found in East Africa in a remote, snake infested; lion patrolled area that stretches 40 miles from Taita Hills of Kenya into Tanzania. Because of the region’s geological history of volcanic activity, production is limited, making it a very rare and special gemstone. The green Tsavorite had been discovered the Campbell R. Bridged in the year 1967. When the British Geologist was looking for gemstones and just as a fairy tale goes he came across it.

The name Tsavorite comes from the name of the National Park ‘Tsavo’ where it was discovered.
A very good characteristic about this stone is its robustness, just like the emerald it’s still not that sensitive in handling the gemstone. It is very much suited for the favorable invisible setting whereas emeralds would not be recommended for such a style. The other good thing is the stone is naturally so beautiful it is not necessarily heated or oiled.

This gemstone is really something special, this young gemstone with the ancient history. Tsavorite with its bright and vibrant green colour, excellent brilliance and characteristics it is equally matched with the classic diamond, sapphire and Ruby.
A truly magnificent gift of nature and something to be treasured as an heirloom.


Turquoise is perhaps the oldest stone in man’s history, the talisman of kings, shamans, and warriors. It is a stone of protection, strong and opaque, yet soothing to the touch, healing to the eye, as if carved from an azure heaven and slipped to earth. Its unique shade of blue, often blue-green, lends it name, Turquoise, to all things of this tranquil hue. The delicate veining or mottled webbing in cream or brown is inherent to the stone and serves to enhance its character.

The name Turquoise is derived from the French, pierre turquoise, meaning “Turkish stone,” because the trade routes that brought Turquoise to Europe from the mines in central Asia went through Turkey, and Venetian merchants often purchased the stone in Turkish bazaars.

For thousands of years, Turquoise has spanned all cultures, prized as a symbol of wisdom, nobility and the power of immortality. Among the Ancient Egyptians, Persians and Chinese, Aztecs and Incas of South America, and Native North Americans, Turquoise was sacred in its adornment and for power, luck, and protection.

Turquoise beads dating back to 5000 B.C. have been found in Iraq, and the Egyptians were mining the stones in the Sinai in 3200 B.C. The death mask of Tutankhamun was studded with Turquoise, as were the mosaic masks dedicated to the gods, the fabulous inlaid skulls, shields and power statues of Montezuma, the last ruler of the Aztecs.

For nearly a thousand years, Native Americans have mined and fashioned Turquoise, using it to guard their burial sites.Many honoured Turquoise as the universal stone, believing their minds would become one with the universe when wearing it. Because of its ability to change colors, it was used in prophesy or divining. To the prehistoric Indian, Turquoise, worn on the body or used in ceremonies always signified the god of the sky alive in the earth.

Yellow Sapphire

Yellow Sapphire brings the wisdom of prosperity, not only by attracting wealth and financial abundance into one’s life, but in its ability to manifest one’s creative energy into form through action. Yellow Sapphire stimulates the intellect, helping to formulate ideas and goals, then focuses that intent through the Solar Plexus Chakra, the will center, allowing one to hold their vision long enough to bring it into being. It also encourages the exploration of moving in new directions, bringing excitement and joyful expectation about the possibilities in life.

Blue Tourmaline – Indicolite

Blue tourmaline, also called indicolite or indigolite, is a very rare and special kind of tourmaline. The word Indicolite is derived from the Latin word, meaning ‘indicum plant’.

Indicolite is blue tourmaline, which is probably the rarest form of tourmaline. As a type of tourmaline it has those properties in addition to its own. Indicolite corresponds to all chakras in terms of clearing, but particularly to the throat and third eye chakras. It is said to aid in the quest for spiritual growth. It increases psychic awareness, and increases healing powers. Indicolite can also bring happiness and laughter to your life.

It also promotes inspiration of all kinds, and lessens fear. Indicolite is a protective stone that can dispel curses and protect from all dangers. In the physical realm, indicolite is said to benefit the lungs, larynx, thyroid, heart, internal organs, and parasympathetic nerves.

Red – Pink Tourmaline

The colour of this stone is the epitome of seduction. Its components are red, pink and purple – the typical colour harmony representing joy of life and lust. There is hardly another stone within the fascinating world of gemstones which shows a comparable erotic flair. The colour of Rubellite includes pink as well as the ambivalent purple. These two colour components provide the perfect foil for stressing its seductive red. Fortunately Nature supplies Rubellite in many shades of colour, so that every woman may find the Rubellite which perfectly suits her.

She only has to find it – and this is no easy matter at all. It gets even more difficult when you are looking for two or more stones of the same shade. However, a woman who has become aware of the extravagance and beauty of this gemstone will certainly enjoy her Rubellite.

Red and pink Tourmalines come in many different shades from palest shell-pink via bold pink to a deep ruby red. But only a selected few of these are called “Rubellite”. The name is derived from the Latin term “rubellus” which means “reddish”. Bur Rubellites are not simply red or pink Tourmalines. This exceptionally beautiful gemstone shows a decisive characteristic: its steady colour in daylight and artificial light. In fact, many gemstones change their colour depending on the source of light. A Rubellite never changes colour: it shines as brilliantly and clearly in daylight as in artificial light.

Paraiba Tourmaline

This gemstone is both the most precious and valuable in the world, and with one glance, it is easy to see just why. Glowing from the inside out, the Paraiba Tourmaline is not only rare, but comes in various colors including neon blue, neon blue-green, and more.

“Paraiba” – the word as such holds a special charm and attracti

on for gemstone lovers, after all, this is the denomination of a gemstone showing an exceptional, almost electric blue to green shades. It was discovered not long ago, to be precise: in the year 1987 The world owes this sensational find to an individual man and his unshakeable belief: to Heitor Dimas Barbosa. Never tiring, he had been digging with his helpers for years in the pegmatite layers of a small mountain range in the state of Paraiba in Brazil.

Green Tourmaline – Verdelite

Green tourmaline is a type of green crystal and is part of the tourmaline family, which also features colors such as red, yellow, blue, colorless and even black. Green tourmaline is considered to be the most common tourmaline gemstone, and is considered the classic color of the gem. Green tourmaline stones feature a wide range of shades within the green color range. While some of these gemstones feature a darker bottle green color, others stones can range from a very light green to a yellowish green, or olive color. Certain green tourmaline stones feature a blue-green or darker green color. Green tourmaline featuring the blue-green colors are considered to be the most favored colors and are increasingly rare compared to other shades of the gemstone.

The green tourmaline stone, in its more valuable colors, is considered to be rare and favorable between both jewelers as well as gem stone collectors. Because of the stones hardness as well as its vibrant colors, it is used very often in all different kinds of jewelry applications. Some believe that the green tourmaline stone as powers that help to protect the owner from misfortune, as well as strengthen the spirit and body.

Hessonite Garnet

The name, ‘hessonite’, was derived from the Greek

word ‘hesson’, meaning ‘inferior’ – in reference to the fact that hessonite has a density and hardness lower than that of most other forms of garnet.

Hessonite can be easily distinguished from other garnet types by its distinctive color and the presence of manganese.

Hessonite colors can range from deep yellow or golden orange to cinnamon brown. Its color is owed to traces of manganese. Hessonite often contains tiny honey-colored inclusions. These inclusions typically do not detract from the value of the stone. The most desirable color is bright golden orange; lighter stones exhibit more brilliance.

Diamond  – Verdelite

As with many legendary diamonds and gems, there are contrasting stories and rumors regarding the origin of the Koh-I-Noor. Some believe it was a gift to the earth from Surya (the god of the sun), and that evidence of its existence can be found in ancient Sanskrit writings, dating back over 5000 years. Some Hindus believe it was stolen from the great god Krishna as he lay asleep, whilst others say the Koh-I-Noor was, in fact, the Syamantaka Jewel, another famous precious stone from Indian mythology, believed to have been blessed with great magical powers.

The first real evidence of the Koh-I-Noor can be found in the memoirs of Barbur, the founder and first leader of the Mogul Empire. Barbur recorded the diamond amongst the treasures of Ala-ud-deen (better known to some as Aladdin), and it was said to have been won in battle in Malwah, in 1304 AD.

In 1526, it was obtained by the Moguls. Then it was said to have been at its original weight of 793 carats but after some awful cutting and polishing by the Emperor’s jeweller, Borgio, the stone was reduced to just 186 carats, and Borgio was said to have been severely punished!

In 1850 the British thought it fitting that the new Maharaja, Duleep Singh, should personally present the Koh-I-Noor diamond to Queen Victoria, after which it became the centre piece of ‘the Great Exhibition’ staged in Hyde Park, London, which displayed the large diamond in full public view.

In 1852, Prince Albert ordered for the diamond to be re-cut, reducing it to its current weight of 105 carats, and increasing its brilliance, soon after which it was set in a royal tiara with over 2000 other diamonds.

The Koh-I-Noor currently resides with the rest of the crown jewels, set in a crown created in 1937 for the coronation of the then Empress of India, Elizabeth, who would later be known as the Queen Mother.

Most diamonds form under extreme pressure and at very high temperatures, typically at depths of over 140 kilometers inside Earth’s mantle. On average, diamond formation occurs over periods of 1 to 3.3 billion years, until they are surfaced through deep volcanic eruptions of a rare type of magma called kimberlite. Kimberlite is a ultramafic potassic igneous rock that also contains many other minerals like olivine, diopside, calcite, serpentine, garnet and small amounts of apatite, as well as various other upper mantle minerals. The kimberlite magma erupts from rare volcanic vents known as pipes or diatremes.


Opal is famed for its ability to diffract light. The exact cause of opal’s unique properties was only recently discovered by Australian scientists in the 1960s after analysis with electron microscopes. It was discovered that small spheres of silica gel caused interference, refraction and diffraction of light, resulting in opal’s distinctive play of color. The varying refractive indices of the spheres and spaces between them dissect the light on its passage through the stone

As light enters the opal, it bends around the tiny particles or ‘spheres’ of hydrated silica, as well as ‘chips’ of silicon and oxygen suspended within the stone. Light is comprised of all visible colors and can produce an entire spectrum of colors when it is diffracted.

Precious opal is known for its remarkable ability to diffract light, which results in rainbow-like colors that change with the angle of observation – known as ‘play of color’. Fire opal can sometimes exhibit slight color play, but it is better known for its vivid body color. Common opal is usually opaque, rarely translucent, and lacks play of color. It is often found mixed with other gemstones, such as agate opal or moss opal. Common opal is known to exhibit ‘opalescence’. The term ‘opalescence’ is often mistaken for ‘play of color’. Opalescence should technically only be used to describe the optical effects seen in common opal.

Opalescence is caused by the reflection of light and appears as a sheen of light, typically milky-bluish in color. It is a form of adularescence, whereas ‘play of color’ is iridescence caused by light diffraction.

Blue Topaz

Blue topaz can be found in both lighter and darker tones, usually known in the trade as sky blue topaz, Swiss blue topaz and London blue topaz. As in the case of other blue gems, the more saturated blues tend to have a higher value. So in topaz it is the London blue that usually regarded as the most valuable.

London blue topaz is a medium to dark grayish blue, sometimes described as “steely” or “inky”. Many London blue gems have a slightly greenish tone when viewed from certain angles.

The reason why blue topaz is so reasonably priced is that topaz is a very abundant material. But natural topaz occurs mainly in white (colorless) and brown; natural blue topaz is actually very rare.

Imperial Topaz

The Egyptians said that topaz was colored with the golden glow of the mighty sun god Ra. This made topaz a very powerful amulet that protected the faithful against harm. The Romans associated topaz

with Jupiter, who also is the god of the sun. Topaz sometimes has the amber gold of fine cognac or the blush of a peach and all the beautiful warm browns and oranges in between. Some rare and exceptional topaz are pale pink to a sherry red.

Wear topaz only if you wish to be clear-sighted: legend has it that it dispels all enchantment and helps to improve eyesight as well! The ancient Greeks believed that it had the power to increase strength and make its wearer invisible in times of emergency. Topaz was also said to change color in the presence of poisoned food or drink. Its mystical curative powers waxed and waned with the phases of the moon: it was said to cure insomnia, asthma, and hemorrhages.

Perhaps the most famous topaz is a giant specimen set in the Portuguese Crown, the Braganza, which was first thought to be a diamond. There is also a beautiful topaz set in the Green Vault in Dresden, one of the world’s important gem collections.

Cat Eye – Chrysoberyl

In the world of gems and crystal healing lore, chrysoberyl is a stone of discipline and self-control. It is thought to increase concentration and learning ability, while enhancing a desire for excellence. Chrysoberyl can help increase self-confidence and bring peace of mind. It is believed to enhance creativity, imagination and intuition. Chrysoberyl is believed to bridge the gap between both the physical and spiritual world.

It is known to carry a strong and warm healing energy and is thus associated with the crown chakra. Since ancient times, chrysoberyl has been regarded as a protection stone and is often associated with money and wealth. In fact, Russian legends claim that color change chrysoberyl can bring good luck, fortune and love to those who wear it.

Chrysoberyl is a very rare mineral and gemstone quality deposits are even a rare and exotic family of gemstones first discovered in 1789 by renowned geologist, Abraham Gottlob Werner. The name Chrysoberyl was originally derived from the Greek words, ‘chryso’ and ‘beryl’, meaning ‘golden’ and ‘green’, respectively. For many years, chrysoberyl was often referred to as Chrysolite, a historical name used to refer to any golden-green to olive colored gemstone.


The history of alexandrite is quite controversial, dating back to the times of Imperial Russia. It is said that the stone was named after the Russian tsar, Alexander II (1818 – 1881), but was discovere

d by a French mineralist called Nils Gustaf Nordenskiöld (1792 – 1866). When Nordenskiöld first discovered alexandrite in 1834, it was initially thought to be an emerald because it was discovered in emerald mines located in Russia’s Ural region, near the Tokovaya River.

The specimen was later identified as a chromium bearing, color change variety of chrysoberyl. Legends claim that the discovery of alexandrite was made on the very day the future tsar of Russia became of age. Inevitably, the red and green color change stone was to be declared the official gemstone of Imperial Russia’s Tsardom.

Alexandrite is one of the rarest of all colored gemstones available today. More specifically, it is an extremely rare color change variety of chrysoberyl.

It can display emerald green, red, orange and yellow colors depending on which angle the stone is viewed from.


In Ancient, as well as Modern times, the aquamarine is said to have countless positive effects on the wearer. The attributes of aquamarine were first recorded by Damigeron in the second century BC.

Aquamarine is derived from the Latin word ‘aqua marina, aqua:  water, marina: of the sea; as its colours resemble the ocean.

Aquamarine has been adorned in jewellery back far as 500 B.C. It was a famous talisman for the sailors, as they believed it would keep them safe from the danger. Aquamarine is a member of the beryl family, rated 7.8 on the Mohs hardness scale, making it a durable stone for any jewellery.

Like seawater, aquamarine can be light-blue, dark-blue, blue-green and green-blue. The more saturated the color, the higher the value, although almost all aquamarine is typically a lighter blue tone. A deeply saturated blue is the most desirable color, but it is very rare in larger specimens.


According to an Eskimo legend, the Northern Lights are captured in the minerals on the coast of Labrador. This is not surprising considering the magical, iridescent colour of labradorite. Labradorite is thought to be a magical stone that possesses powerful protective properties and helps its wearer to find their true path in life. It is thought to “bring light” to the otherwise unknown, and thus provide its wearer with insight.

Additionally, labradorite is credited with having the ability to bring out the positive in people and calm overactive minds, bringing peace to its wearer. Labradorite is also thought to soothe menstrual problems, aid disorders of the lungs, prevent colds, help with digestion and regulate both metabolism and blood pressure.The throat chakra is associated with hearing, speech and self-expression. Wearing labradorite is thought to contribute to true and honest expression. Labradorite is said to facilitate communication between the spiritual and physical world, helping its wearer to recall dreams and experiences from past lives. It is therefore thought to help bring out psychic abilities.

The most highly valued labradorite is material that shows the full spectrum of colour in its labradorescence. Labradorite that does not exhibit labradorescence can still make beautiful gemstones because of aventurescence, which is a glitter caused by diffraction of light from mineral platelets.

Rhodolite – Garnet

Rhodolite garnet is a raspberry-red, purplish-red or rose-coloured garnet. It is a mix of pyrope and almandine in composition. Rhodolite garnet gets its name from the Greek word, “rhodon”, meaning “rose coloured”, which refers to its pinkish hue.

The name “garnet” comes from the Medieval Latin word, “granatum”, which is an adjective meaning “dark-red”.

It is thought that this adjective could have been extract

ed from the word “pomegranate”, due to the colour of the seed coats or shape of the seeds. However, the word could also have come from another Medieval Latin word; “granum”, referring to red dye. The use of red garnet dates back thousands of years, when it was used by Egyptian pharaohs for both decorative and ceremonial purposes. The ancient Romans also wore garnet rings and traded garnet gemstones. The best rhodolite garnet gemstones are a vivid raspberry-red colour.

Rhodolite garnets can be rose pink, purplish-pink, raspberry-red or purplish-red. The most desired colour is raspberry red.

Garnet has long been thought of as a travellers’ stone. In fact, Noah’s Ark is said to have had a garnet lantern to help navigate during the night.

Garnet is also thought to promote successful business, encourage compassion and aid self-confidence. Garnet is said to have the ability to heal the blood and encourage good circulation.

Spessartite – Garnet

Spessartite is an orange to red-brown gemstone that belongs to the large and varied garnet species. The name, “spessartine” comes from the Bavarian word, “Spessart”, meaning forest.

In particular, spessartite garnet is said to provide its wearer with analytical and creative abilities, strength of heart and the eagerness to assist others. Physically, spessartite garnet is thought to benefit the reproductive system, the kidneys, bladder and the appetite.

The healing powers of spessartite garnet are said to be good for clear communication, self-confidence and for willingness to make changes and experience new things.

Spessartite garnet can range in colour from warm yellow to orange-red. The most desired colour for spessartite garnet is a reddish-orange, which is known as “aurora red” or “mandarin spessartite”. This is a pure orange without brown tints.


The Anahi Mine, located in Bolivia is the world’s largest source for precious ametrine. The mine became famous in the 17th century when a Spanish conquistador received an ametrine stone as a gift. He had received the gift when he married a princess from the Ayoreos tribe by the name of Anahi from Bolivia. Ametrine was introduced to the rest of Europe when the conquistador presented the stone to the Spanish queen.

Throughout the Middle Ages and times of Antiquity, people believed that the cosmos was reflected in gemstones. The esoteric movement revived these ancient beliefs and many gemstone and crystal collectors buy colored stones primarily for astrological healing powers. The healing powers of gemstones have been used for centuries by healers, shamans and medicine men all over the world. Whether it’s based on fact or simply a result of the placebo effect, people believe that crystals work. To achieve the most benefit from your crystal, wear the stone in contact with the skin, especially the targeted area. Ametrine is said to be of help for headaches, pancreatic disorders, backache and alcoholism.

Ametrine comes in bands of yellow and purple. It is easily identified by its unique bicoloring. Since it has a limited color range, it can easily be distinguished from other bicolored stones.


As a lesser-known gemstone, fluorite hasn’t gained much fame or legend, other than being known as the most colorful mineral in the world. The word ‘fluorite’, derived from the Latin verb ‘to flow’, refers to fluorite’s use as a flux in steel and aluminum processing. It was originally name

d ‘fluorspar’ by miners and is still called fluorspar to this day. Fluorite is also used as a source of fluorine for fluorinated water.

Many people believe fluorite has a calming effect on the body. During the eighteenth century it was ground into powder and mixed with water to treat kidney disease. Ancient Romans believed that drinking alcoholic beverages out of vessels carved from fluorite would help prevent drunkenness, which is similar to the beliefs attached to purple amethyst.

Fluorite occurs in a range of colors from colorless to black. The hallmark fluorite color is purple, while other popular colors include blue, green and yellow. Rarer colors include colorless, pink, brown, black and reddish-orange.

PadParadscha Sapphires

Prized throughout the ages, padparadscha sapphires are as beautiful and exotic as their name.

The rarest and most valuable color in sapphire is called padparadscha. The name, as esoteric as the color is elusive, is said to be derived from the Sinhalese term for lotus flower.

In Buddhism the pink lotus is regarded as the ‘supreme lotus,’ and the lotus associated with the historical Buddha.


Kunzite was first discovered in Connecticut, USA, and was nam

ed after George Frederick Kunz (1856 – 1932), an American mineralogist.

Kunzite is closely related to hiddenite, the yellow-green m

ember of the spodumene family which was also discovered and named after an American mineralogist, W. E. Hidden.

The wearer of a kunzite gemstone is believed to be blessed with good fortune. Kunzite is said to help its wearer to understand and interact better with others. Kunzite is sometimes referred to as the ‘evening stone’ because of its sensitivity to sunlight and heat. Kunzite’s pink color is said to bond the energies of the heart and mind. For this reason, it is often referred to as a ‘stone of balance’.

It occurs as colorless to yellowish, purplish, yellowish-green or emerald-green .

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